corruption Antony/Flickr

La cruzada anticorrupción latinoamericana

Ciudad de México – Aun cuando gran parte de Latinoamérica participa en celebraciones casi de hipérbole por los renovados vínculos diplomáticos entre Cuba y Estados Unidos, el continente enfrenta dos grandes desafíos. El primero –la caída del crecimiento económico a menos del 1 % en promedio en toda la región– ya se ha discutido vastamente; la explicación predominante es que la reducción del crecimiento económico chino ha sofocado los precios de las materias primas y, con ellos, los ingresos latinoamericanos por exportaciones. Pero es el segundo –el resurgimiento de la corrupción– el desafío que está resultando más interesante.

Latinoamérica se ha visto asolada por la corrupción durante siglos, desde que surgió de lo que el poeta mexicano Octavio Paz llamó naturaleza «patrimonialista» del reinado colonial español y portugués. Lo que ha cambiado en la actualidad es la respuesta a ella: las sociedades e instituciones se rehúsan a ser cómplices en la corrupción o a resignarse a su inevitabilidad.

Esta actitud queda ejemplificada en la proliferación de juicios, investigaciones, demostraciones, condenas y renuncias relacionadas con la corrupción; especialmente en Brasil y Venezuela y, en menor medida, en México y Guatemala. En esos cuatro países han estallado grandes escándalos en los cuales funcionarios del gobierno de alto nivel y líderes empresariales han sido denunciados por los medios, el sistema judicial, los gobiernos extranjeros o la oposición local. Si bien ninguno de los gobiernos implicado en los escándalos colapsará –al menos, no exclusivamente por la corrupción– la magnitud de la protesta social y política –ni que hablar de las acciones legales– es asombrosa.

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