Construction workers on site

Ridisegnare il panorama del lavoro

DAVOS – In un’epoca in cui i cambiamenti dell’economia globale avvengono a un ritmo sempre più rapido, in molti paesi il mercato del lavoro non solo lotta per tenersi al passo, ma sembra anche caratterizzato da forti incongruenze. Una disoccupazione elevata coesiste con posti di lavoro vacanti, l’incremento della produttività non riesce a tradursi in aumenti salariali, e per molti la mobilità verso l’alto resta irraggiungibile, anche se l’economia ha cominciato a riprendersi. 

Fortunatamente, sembra essere in atto un cambiamento. Quattro trend globali stanno ridisegnando il mondo dell’occupazione, aiutando a risolvere le contraddizioni e a superare le disfunzioni del mercato del lavoro mentre aziende, lavoratori e governi si adattano a un nuovo ambiente demografico, tecnologico ed economico.

Il primo trend è di tipo demografico. In gran parte del mondo, l’invecchiamento della popolazione e il calo delle nascite sono indice del fatto che i giorni in cui la manodopera abbondava stanno per finire. Circa il 60% della popolazione mondiale vive in paesi dove la forza lavoro è stabile o in diminuzione. La popolazione in età lavorativa della Cina ha raggiunto il picco nel 2010, quindi nel 2050 oltre un quarto di essa avrà più di 65 anni (oggi è solo l’8%). In Germania, si prevede che la forza lavoro diminuirà di sei milioni di unità nei prossimi 15 anni.     

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