Construction workers on site

Die Umgestaltung der Arbeitswelt

DAVOS – Angesichts einer sich immer schneller verändernden Weltwirtschaft tut sich der Arbeitsmarkt in vielen Ländern nicht nur schwer, Schritt zu halten, sondern scheint auf wichtige Weisen zusammengebrochen zu sein. Hohe Arbeitslosigkeit geht einher mit unbesetzten Stellen. Steigende Produktivität schlägt sich nicht in höheren Löhnen nieder. Und für viele ist ein wirtschaftlicher Aufstieg außer Reichweite, obwohl die Wirtschaft begonnen hat, sich zu erholen.

Glücklicherweise scheint ein Wandel eingesetzt zu haben. Vier globale Trends sind dabei, die Arbeitswelt umzugestalten, und helfen, Widersprüche aufzulösen und die Dysfunktionalität des Arbeitsmarktes zu überwinden, während sich Unternehmen, Arbeitnehmer und Regierungen an das neue demografische, technologische und wirtschaftliche Umfeld anpassen.

Der erste Trend ist demografischer Art. In großen Teilen der Welt haben alternde Gesellschaften und sinkende Geburtenraten dazu geführt, dass die Tage eines überreichen Angebots an Arbeitskräften zu Ende gehen. Rund 60% der Weltbevölkerung leben in Ländern mit stagnierenden oder schrumpfenden Erwerbsbevölkerungen. In China erreichte die Erwerbsbevölkerung 2010 ihren Spitzenwert; 2050 wird mehr als ein Viertel der Bevölkerung des Landes über 65 Jahre sein (heute sind es nur 8%). In Deutschland soll die Erwerbsbevölkerung im Verlauf der nächsten 15 Jahre laut Prognosen um sechs Millionen zurückgehen.

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