La Révolution parlementaire du Koweït

Le monde a été stupéfié par la victoire du Hamas lors des élections palestiniennes. Et c’est l’affirmation d’une puissance parlementaire et démocratique, cette fois-ci dans le cheikat du Koweït dans le Golfe, qui possède 10 % des réserves mondiales de pétrole, qui pourrait se révéler tout aussi importante. Tous les signes indiquent que la vague de démocratisation qui secoue le Koweït est irréversible, et que l’impact de ces changements va au-delà du Koweït jusque dans tous les pays riches de pétrole du Golfe, qui sont également dirigés par des émirs et des cheiks.

En effet, ces dirigeants ont maintenant de quoi réfléchir. Le décès du leader du Koweït, le cheik Jaber Al Sabah, le 15 janvier 2006, fut suivi par des troubles nationaux sans précédent, qui ont rapidement mené à l’abdication de son successeur désigné, Saad Al Sabah. Rien de tout cela n’avait jamais troublé la famille Al Sabah jusqu’à présent, en deux siècles de règne sur le Koweït.

Habituellement, le rôle d’émir dirigeant alterne (selon un accord tacite) entre deux branches rivales de la famille Al Sabah : les Al Jaber et les Al Salem. La succession a toujours été restreinte à une affaire de famille et chaque dispute est restée entre ses quatre murs. La mort du cheik Jaber Al Sabah a toutefois soumis la succession à un débat public endiablé, où la presse et le parlement du Koweït ont tenu un rôle clé dans la détermination des événements.

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