Kosovo y Kostunica

PRISTINA: "Todo debe cambiar para que nada cambie". Este aforismo incluído en la maravillosa novela The Leopard, del Príncipe Lampedusa, quizá puede ser aplicado a la situación que ahora se vive en Kosovo después de la caída de Milosevic. ¿Será posible que la presencia de un presidente electo democráticamente en Belgrado signifique que todo ha cambiado para Serbia, pero que nada ha cambiado en la relación entre Serbia y Kosovo?

Puede que Serbia sea una democracia o no, pero una cosa es segura: las esperanzas para que Kosovo se convierta en un próspero país democrático en los próximos cinco años son muy escasas. La razón es simple: Kosovo nunca ha sido tal cosa. Hoy en día es un territorio administrado por la Organización de las Naciones Unidas (ONU), el cual está en plena transición después de 50 años de comunismo, de 10 años de dominio serbio al estilo Apartheid y de los estragos de la guerra. Además, el status de Kosovo para el largo plazo no está definido: a pesar de que es un protectorado de la ONU todavía está, formalmente, bajo la soberanía de la Federación Yugoslava de Serbia y Montenegro, en proceso de desintegración.

Al parecer, lograr que Kosovo se convierta en un Estado democrático y económicamente próspero seguirá fuera del alcance de sus habitantes por muchos años más, porque primero deben crear un Estado propio para que la democracia y la prosperidad echen raíz. La Resolución 1244 del Consejo de Seguridad de la ONU, la suprema ley aquí, impide que esto suceda, a menos que ambos lados, Serbia y Kosovo, negocien un acuerdo al respecto. Pero la Resolución 1244 no impide que Kosovo cree un gobierno de facto que funcione como un verdadero gobierno nacional.

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