Chruschtschows Geheimrede und das Ende des Kommunismus

Im Verlaufe der Geschichte gibt es Ereignisse, die auf den ersten Blick unbedeutend erscheinen oder deren Bedeutung verborgen bleibt, die sich jedoch als welterschütternd erweisen. Ein solcher Moment ereignete sich vor 50 Jahren mit der so genannten „Geheimrede“ Nikita Chruschtschows vor dem 20. Parteitag der Kommunistischen Partei der Sowjetunion. Diese rangiert als einer der kritischsten Momente des 20. Jahrhunderts meiner Ansicht nach gleich hinter der bolschewistischen Revolution des Jahres 1917 und Hitlers Krieg.

In jenem Augenblick schien es, als ob die kommunistische Bewegung vom Strom der Geschichte getragen werde – und nicht nur in der Sowjetunion. Mitte der 1950er Jahre befand sich der Kommunismus in Europa und auch in der aufstrebenden Dritten Welt auf dem Vormarsch. Der Kapitalismus, so schien es, lag in den letzten Zügen. Alle Unvollkommenheiten des Kommunismus wurden als vorübergehend betrachtet, als bloße Schlaglöcher auf dem Weg zu jener gerechten Gesellschaft, die damals geboren wurde. Ein Drittel der Menschheit glaubte, dass die Sowjetunion die Welt zum globalen Sozialismus führen würde.

Der 20. Parteitag machte dem ein Ende. Es war ein Moment der Wahrheit, eine von innen heraus erfolgende Reinigung von der Brutalität des Stalinismus. Chruschtschows Rede an den Parteitag löste Unsicherheit und Zweifel innerhalb der kommunistischen Bewegung weltweit aus.

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