Мальтус, Маркс и рост в современной экономике

КЭМБРИДЖ – Обещание того, что каждое поколение будет лучше своих предшественников является одним из основных принципов современного общества. Учитывая растущий уровень жизни за последние несколько поколений, можно предположить, что по большому счету, страны с развитой экономикой выполнили это обещание несмотря на неудачи в войнах и финансовые кризисы.

Подавляющее большинство людей в развивающихся странах также начали испытывать устойчивое улучшение уровня благосостояния и подобные ожидания роста стремительно развиваются. Но реализуют ли будущие поколения, особенно в странах с развитой экономикой, наши ожидания? Скорее всего да, но риски понижения кажутся выше, чем несколько десятилетий тому назад.

До сих пор в современной эпохе, каждый прогноз того, что судьба человечества ухудшится, от Томаса Мальтуса до Карла Маркса, оказался неправильным. Технологический прогресс разрушил препятствия на пути экономического роста. Периодическое изменение политического баланса, иногда мирным путем, а иногда нет, было установлено, и обеспечило пользу подавляющему большинству людей, хотя некоторым гораздо больше, чем другим.

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