IAEA Director General Yukiya Amano Qian Yi/ZumaPress

值得欢迎的放射性元素银行

堪培拉—世界从伊朗核传奇中学到的众多教训之一是其领导人在20世纪60年代谈判核不扩散条约式犯了一个错误,没有做任何事情约束铀浓缩和钚再处理。这一错误显然源自一个早就在铀问题上被证明错误的信念——仅有的那些有可能拥有这一技术能力的国家要么已经拥有了核武器,要么(如德国)承诺永远不会拥有该能力。

结果,任何成员国都可以主张根据核不扩散条约拥有追求核燃料循环任何阶段的“不可侵犯的权利”。尽管这一权利只适用于“和平目的”活动,但存在巨大的漏洞。任何有技术能力的国家——目前有几十个之多——都可以建造核浓缩设施,只要官方目的是为核能或研究性反应堆生产能源,但它们当然都有能力制造核武器所需要的更高级别的燃料。

这些设施被称为“核弹发射装置”不是没有道理,伊朗在这方面取得进展——不管是否有意设计成具有潜在武器突破能力——让国际社会的许多国家恐慌不已。因此才会有如此大的压力促成了现在摆到台面上的协议,该协议极大地限制了伊朗的核浓缩能力。

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