Jim Meehan

Raisonnement logique et lutte contre la pauvreté

WASHINGTON, DC – La Banque mondiale s’est fixée deux nouveaux objectifs : mettre un terme à la misère et à la pauvreté chronique dans le monde d’ici 2030, et œuvrer en faveur d’une prospérité partagée, qui sera évaluée selon un indicateur s’intéressant à l’augmentation des revenus des 40% d’individus les plus pauvres au sein de chaque société. Le groupe de travail sur les objectifs de développement durable créé par l’Assemblée générale des Nations Unies ayant désormais consenti à l’objectif de lutte contre la pauvreté fixé par la Banque mondiale, le débat sur la manière d’y parvenir soulève de nouveau une interrogation bien connue : Sera-t-il possible que les bénéfices de la croissance économique se propagent de manière naturelle dans l’économie toute entière, profitant ainsi à tous, ou nous faudra-t-il mettre en œuvre des politiques redistributives ciblées ?

De nombreuses personnes s’enferment dans une approche uniquement axée sur la croissance en raison d’une erreur de raisonnement déductif ; fort heureusement, contrairement aux idéologues les plus engagés, il est possible de les faire changer de conception. C’est en cela que le second objectif de la Banque mondiale, en faveur d’une prospérité partagée, revêt non seulement de l’importance en lui-même, mais constitue également un complément essentiel en direction d’un coup d’arrêt à la pauvreté.

Consciente qu’un certain nombre de poches de pauvreté « frictionnelle » persisteront inévitablement au cours des vingt prochaines années, la Banque mondiale a pour objectif formel de réduire le pourcentage de populations vivant en-dessous du seuil de pauvreté – défini comme une consommation journalière inférieure à 1,25 $ (en termes de parité de pouvoir d’achat) par personne – à moins de 3%.

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