Cuando chocan los bloques

BUENOS AIRES – Las dos grandes agrupaciones económicas de América Latina –la Alianza del Pacífico y el Mercado Común del Sur (Mercosur)– están aplicando una mayor integración en la economía mundial de formas muy diferentes. Su éxito dependerá no sólo de sus estrategias particulares, sino también de que éstas se complementen. Sólo así puede llegar esa región a desempeñar un papel importante en la economía mundial.

La Alianza del Pacífico –compuesta por Chile, Colombia, México y el Perú– representa casi el 40 por ciento del PIB de América Latina, después de haber crecido un 2,9 por ciento anual desde 2000. Las cinco economías del Mercosur –la Argentina, el Brasil, el Paraguay, el Uruguay y Venezuela– representan el 50 por ciento, aproximadamente, del PIB de la región y durante el mismo período crecieron por término medio el 3,4 por ciento, aproximadamente, al año, si bien el crecimiento se ha desacelerado desde 2010.

Pero aún no se ha hecho realidad todo el potencial de esas economías. Mientras que el Mercosur ha logrado relativamente la integración comercial, pues el comercio dentro de ese bloque representa el 15 por ciento del comercio total de los países miembros (y más del 25 por ciento en el caso de la Argentina, el Paraguay y el Uruguay), no ha profundizado la integración de los mercados de bienes y servicios.

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