Después del dólar

NUEVA YORK – Resulta simbólico que la cumbre de los BRICS en Fortaleza, Brasil, haya tenido lugar exactamente siete décadas después de la Conferencia de Bretton Woods, que creó al Fondo Monetario Internacional y al Banco Mundial. El resultado final del encuentro de los BRICS fue el anuncio del Nuevo Banco de Desarrollo, que movilizará recursos para proyectos de infraestructura y desarrollo sostenible, y un Acuerdo de Reservas para Contingencias, para brindar liquidez mediante swaps de monedas.

La Conferencia de Bretton Woods marcó uno de los mayores ejemplos en la historia de cooperación económica internacional; aunque nadie aún puede decir si las iniciativas de los BRICS tendrán éxito, representan un importante desafío a las instituciones de Bretton Woods, que debieran reaccionar. Repensar el rol del dólar estadounidense en el sistema monetario internacional es un buen ejemplo.

Una de las características clave del sistema de Bretton Woods era que los países vincularían sus tipos de cambio al dólar estadounidense. Si bien el sistema en realidad fue eliminado en 1971, el rol central del dólar estadounidense en el sistema monetario internacional se mantuvo intacto, una situación que muchos países cada vez están menos dispuestos a aceptar.

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