Les nuages du passé planent à nouveau sur l’Europe

BERLIN – S’il est un épisode historique qui fait encore trembler la plupart des Européens, pourtant un siècle plus tard, c’est bien l’explosion de la Première Guerre mondiale, catastrophe européenne majeure, qui débuta à la fin du mois de juillet 1914. Il se trouve qu’exactement cent ans plus tard, après deux guerres mondiales et une guerre froide, les frissons du passé se font plus présents que jamais.

À l’issue d’une histoire européenne sanglante, les États artisans de l’actuelle Union européenne ont opté pour la non-violence, l’immuabilité des frontières, la démocratie, et la primauté du droit. Ils ont choisi la coopération, voire l’intégration, en lieu et place de la confrontation militaire, et le développement économique plutôt que les politiques de puissance. Or, voici que l’ « Europe de l’UE » replonge désormais dans le passé, et se retrouve à nouveau défiée par le retour de politiques agressives à ses frontières ainsi que chez ses voisins immédiats.

À l’Est, le Kremlin du président Vladimir Poutine entend refaçonner les frontières nationales par la force, et ainsi promouvoir la renaissance de la Russie en tant que puissance mondiale impériale. Pendant ce temps, chaos et violences – notamment en Syrie, en Irak et à Gaza – menacent d’engloutir le Moyen-Orient tout entier, mettant à mal l’intégrité territoriale d’États principalement nés de l’accord de résolution de la Première Guerre mondiale.

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