Le Moyen-Orient et le retour de l’histoire

BERLIN – Depuis que Francis Fukuyama avait annoncé, il y a plus de vingt ans, que le monde était parvenu à la fin de son histoire, c’est elle qui a tenu le monde en haleine. Le réveil de la Chine, les guerres dans les Balkans, les attaques terroristes du 11 septembre 2001, les guerres en Afghanistan et en Irak, la crise financière globale de 2008, le « Printemps arabe », et la guerre civile syrienne, tous ces évènements démentent la vision de Fukuyama sur l’inévitable triomphe de la démocratie libérale. En fait, on pourrait dire que l’Histoire a bouclé la boucle en l’espace d’un quart de siècle, depuis la chute du communisme en Europe en 1989 jusqu’au renouveau de la confrontation entre la Russie et l’Occident.

Mais c’est au Moyen Orient que l’Histoire est quotidiennement à l’œuvre, avec les conséquences les plus dramatiques. L’ancien Moyen-Orient, formé sur les restes de l’Empire Ottoman après la première guerre mondiale, est clairement en plein effondrement – une situation qui découle principalement des actions des Etats-Unis dans cette région particulièrement prône aux conflits.

Le péché originel des Etats-Unis fut son invasion militaire de l’Irak en 2003 sous la présidence de George W. Bush. Les « néoconservateurs » au pouvoir à l’époque ont ignoré la nécessité de combler le vide du pouvoir en Irak et dans la région après la chute de Saddam Hussein. Le retrait rapide et prématuré des troupes américaines décidé par le président Barack Obama fut la seconde erreur américaine.

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