ジハードか殺人か

イスラム教宗教用語のもっとも重大な概念の一部が、時事問題の国際言語となっていることは、注目すべき点である。イスラム教の宗教学から導かれた論点が、イスラム教の信者であるか否かを問わず、世界中の著名な専門家や一般の人々によって自由に議論されている。宗教学の議論の場が、イスラム教の宗教学会からかけ離れた場所へ移動しているのである。

たとえば、通常「聖戦」と翻訳されるジハード (jihad) という用語は、ほぼ一般的な言葉となった。この用語は、イスラム教の歴史の初期には神の教えを広めるという意味で理解されていたが、今日のイスラム教学者は、2 つの意味のジハードを区別している。1 つは誘惑に対する内的葛藤であり、もう 1 つはイスラム教共同体の存続あるいは基本的権利を脅かす侵略者との、物理的対立である。この背景には、原理主義者によるこの用語の使用に対する、幅広い反発がある。

多くのイスラム教学者が、過去何世紀にもわたる宗教法学からの長い引用を提示し、テロリストの自爆テロや市民への攻撃についての言い訳を批判する声を上げてきた。この手法そのものは、テロリストに反対する総合的な見解の、価値ある表現を代弁するものである。

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