市场失灵与政治失灵

发自巴黎——市场会出现失灵。但正如类似空气污染,交通拥堵,电信频率分配以及香烟消费等问题所展现的那样,市场机制往往是政府应对这类失灵问题的最佳手段。但为何如今这些机制却逐渐失去了用武之地?

以排放配额市场为例,在市场里那些可以低成本减少排放的企业可以和其他企业做交易。十年前,一直有主张认为这类市场可以用相对低廉的成本来实现既定的环保目标,并且得到了广泛的认同和实施。但如今政治却在扼杀“设限+交易”(cap and trade)方案。

在美国,取得了极大成功的二氧化硫“设限+交易”系统基本上销声匿迹了。欧洲的<>排放交易系统这个全球最大的碳排放配额市场也逐渐变得形同虚设。在大西洋另一端,市场主导的环境监管在过去5年中被旧式的“命令+控制”(command  and control)手段所取代,谁要用哪种技术去减少某个数量的特定排放物,一切都由政府说了算。

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