Absentující Amerika

CAMBRIDGE – Americký Kongres právě lehkomyslně potopil dlouho očekávanou reformu Mezinárodního měnového fondu. Byla by to dost špatná zpráva, už kdyby šlo o ojedinělou epizodu. Jedná se však o nejnovější událost v sérii sebezničujících ran, jež od přelomu století zbytečně podrývají nárok Spojených států na globální vůdcovství.

Zablokovaná reforma MMF by byla důležitým krokem k aktualizaci přidělených kvót určujících peněžní příspěvky a hlasovací váhu členských států. Od USA se nežádalo, aby dávaly víc peněz ani aby ztratily na hlasovací váze, která jim vždy zajišťovala jedinečné právo veta. Navrhované zvýšení kvót pro Čínu, Indii, Brazílii a další rozvíjející se země by místo toho šlo z velké části na úkor evropských států.

Úprava kvót MMF je dílčí a opožděnou reakcí na sílící ekonomickou váhu nováčků a přežitou dominanci Evropy. Ostatně právě zásada rovnosti výše příspěvků a váhy zastoupení země – občas označovaná jako zlaté pravidlo („kdo má zlato, vládne“) – je pravděpodobně jednou příčin, proč je MMF obvykle efektivnější než ostatní mezinárodní organizace (třeba Valné shromáždění OSN).

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