Iraqi boys on street corner in Baghdad Cui Xinyu/ZumaPress

中东平衡行动

马德里—伊拉克和叙利亚伊斯兰国家(Islamic State in Iraq and Syria,简称ISIS)最近所取得的胜利印证了,在伊拉克战争开始十多年后,中东的稳定仍然如履薄冰。ISIS——以其建立包括从叙利亚西部到伊拉克中部的广袤领土的哈里发政权的跨国事业——彰显出中东地区所面临的挑战的复杂性,而这一挑战所带来的威胁又凸显出迫切需要新的中东行动框架。

ISIS起先是基地组织旗下组织,在美国入侵伊拉克之后建立。尽管它于去年2月因为过度追求暴力手段而被基地组织开除,但仍然得到了蓬勃发展,在内战频仍的叙利亚和日益与什叶派政府离心离德的伊拉克逊尼派人口中间找到了兴旺的热土。

伊拉克坐落于逊尼派和什叶派势力的交界处——这两派的对立是中东地区冲突的主线索——几十年来,这一直是该国动荡的根源。萨达姆·侯赛因政权的倒台导致宗派暴力滋生,享有很大自治权的北部库尔德地区是例外。

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