Viajar de gorra

MADRID – La estabilidad mundial –entendida como entorno pacífico, libre de conflictos y seguro para las personas– es un bien público global: beneficia a todo el mundo, contribuya o no a proveerlo. A los que no contribuyen a la provisión del bien público global en cuestión pero que, sin embargo, lo disfrutan se les llama ‘free riders’ o polizones. Dicho de otra manera: ‘viajan de gorra’. Y Europa no puede permitirse viajar de gorra cuando hablamos de proveer seguridad en cualquier parte del mundo.

Bien es cierto que la mejor manera que tiene la Unión Europea de contribuir a la seguridad internacional es garantizando su propia paz y estabilidad interna: la historia muestra ejemplos suficientes como para concluir que éste no ha sido un continente estable. Ahora, cuando se cumplen casi cien años del estallido de la Primera Guerra Mundial, la paz por fin ha venido a Europa para quedarse.

Pero el entorno en el que nos movemos es volátil e inestable. Como ejemplos, baste señalar a Oriente Medio y a los conflictos potenciales en el Sudeste Asiático –ambos sin estructuras regionales de seguridad, a diferencia de Europa– como dos de los más claros focos de tensión internacional. Uno de ellos está demasiado cerca geográficamente como para desentenderse. El otro es demasiado importante económicamente como para obviarlo.

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