Las furias históricas de Asia

TOKIO – La política exterior de un país debe ir encaminada, primordialmente, a hacer avanzar el interés nacional, pero, en grandes zonas de Asia, el interés nacional –ya se trate de trabar vínculos comerciales o de reforzar la seguridad– está subordinado con frecuencia  a la Historia y al ascendiente que ésta tiene sobre la imaginación popular. Como el Vicepresidente de los Estados Unidos, Joe Biden, acaba de descubrir en su gira por el Japón, China y Corea del Sur, la observación del novelista americano William Faulkner de que “el pasado nunca muere y  ni siquiera pasa” no podría ser más oportuna.

Un ejemplo comúnmente citado de ello es la relación entre la India y el Pakistán. El Primer Ministro de la India, Manmohan Singh, y el Primer Ministro del Pakistán, Nawaz Sharif, reconocen el inmenso potencial económico que representaría la intensificación de los vínculos comerciales bilaterales y los avances que han intentado conseguir al respecto representan claramente el interés nacional de los dos países, pero sus acercamientos diplomáticos han sido obstaculizados por quienes no pueden aceptar ese razonamiento, que a veces ha llegado hasta el extremo de la comisión de actos terroristas y al lanzamiento de incursiones militares.

Pero el problema de la historia de Asia no se limita a sus democracias, en las que la opinión pública influye directamente en las acciones del Gobierno. También China y Vietnam siguen siendo presa de su larga y enconada historia compartida. El difunto general Vo Nguyen Giap, que condujo a Vietnam durante las guerras con Francia y los Estados Unidos hasta la independencia, pasó sus últimos años protestando contra las inversiones chinas en su país.

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