日本的宪法负担

东京—随着日本在二战中战败七十周年纪念日的临近,对东亚复燃的历史争执的讨论和嗟叹也纷纷登场。但最近的地区紧张局势部分反映了另一个被忽略领域缺乏进展:日本的宪法改革。事实上,尽管伊斯兰国斩首两名日本人质如此生动地展现了日本的无力,但日本仍没有对1947年占日美军所制定的“和平宪法”做出哪怕一项修订。

乍一看,这也许并不那么令人惊讶。毕竟,这部宪法有其重要目的:保证日本不会在未来成为军事威胁。这部宪法让日本最终摆脱外国占领并开始追求重建和民主化。但想一想:1949年,德国在相似的环境中接受了盟军批准的宪法,时至今日已经做出数十项修改。

此外,尽管德国宪法,或者基本法,授权德国出于自卫目的或作为集体安全协议的一部分使用军事力量,但日本宪法规定彻底而永久地放弃“威胁或使用武力作为解决国际纠纷的方式”。日本是世界上唯一一个受到如此限制的国家——之所以如此,不但是要防止军国主义复燃,也是要惩罚日本战时政府的政策——继续遵守这样的限制是不现实的。

To continue reading, please log in or enter your email address.

Registration is quick and easy and requires only your email address. If you already have an account with us, please log in. Or subscribe now for unlimited access.

required

Log in

http://prosyn.org/q32sWGd/zh;
  1. China corruption Isaac Lawrence/Getty Images

    The Next Battle in China’s War on Corruption

    • Chinese President Xi Jinping knows well the threat that corruption poses to the authority of the Communist Party of China and the state it controls. 
    • But moving beyond Xi's anti-corruption purge to build robust and lasting anti-graft institutions will not be easy, owing to enduring opportunities for bureaucratic capture.
  2. Italy unemployed demonstration SalvatoreEsposito/Barcroftimages / Barcroft Media via Getty Images

    Putting Europe’s Long-Term Unemployed Back to Work

    Across the European Union, millions of people who are willing and able to work have been unemployed for a year or longer, at great cost to social cohesion and political stability. If the EU is serious about stopping the rise of populism, it will need to do more to ensure that labor markets are working for everyone.

  3. Latin America market Federico Parra/Getty Images

    A Belt and Road for the Americas?

    In a time of global uncertainty, a vision of “made in the Americas” prosperity provides a unifying agenda for the continent. If implemented, the US could reassert its historical leadership among a group of countries that share its fundamental values, as well as an interest in inclusive economic growth and rising living standards.

  4. Startup office Mladlen Antonov/Getty Images

    How Best to Promote Research and Development

    Clearly, there is something appealing about a start-up-based innovation strategy: it feels democratic, accessible, and so California. But it is definitely not the only way to boost research and development, or even the main way, and it is certainly not the way most major innovations in the US came about during the twentieth century.

  5. Trump Trade speech Bill Pugliano/Getty Images .

    Preparing for the Trump Trade Wars

    In the first 11 months of his presidency, Donald Trump has failed to back up his words – or tweets – with action on a variety of fronts. But the rest of the world's governments, and particularly those in Asia and Europe, would be mistaken to assume that he won't follow through on his promised "America First" trade agenda.