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日本的宪法负担

东京—随着日本在二战中战败七十周年纪念日的临近,对东亚复燃的历史争执的讨论和嗟叹也纷纷登场。但最近的地区紧张局势部分反映了另一个被忽略领域缺乏进展:日本的宪法改革。事实上,尽管伊斯兰国斩首两名日本人质如此生动地展现了日本的无力,但日本仍没有对1947年占日美军所制定的“和平宪法”做出哪怕一项修订。

乍一看,这也许并不那么令人惊讶。毕竟,这部宪法有其重要目的:保证日本不会在未来成为军事威胁。这部宪法让日本最终摆脱外国占领并开始追求重建和民主化。但想一想:1949年,德国在相似的环境中接受了盟军批准的宪法,时至今日已经做出数十项修改。

此外,尽管德国宪法,或者基本法,授权德国出于自卫目的或作为集体安全协议的一部分使用军事力量,但日本宪法规定彻底而永久地放弃“威胁或使用武力作为解决国际纠纷的方式”。日本是世界上唯一一个受到如此限制的国家——之所以如此,不但是要防止军国主义复燃,也是要惩罚日本战时政府的政策——继续遵守这样的限制是不现实的。

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