Tokyo stock market Anadolu Agency/Getty Images

Экономическая дилемма Японии

КЕМБРИДЖ (США) – Японская экономика представляет собой парадоксальную смесь процветания и несостоятельности. И в основном именно из-за процветания страны трудно решить проблемы её несостоятельности.

Любой может почувствовать, как богата Япония, приехав в Токио. Жизненные стандарты высоки: подушевой доход в 2015 году (по паритету покупательной способности) достиг $38 000, что близко к среднему уровню Франции и Великобритании – $41 000. Безработица равна 3,3%, что существенно ниже американских 5% и уровня еврозоны – около 10%.

Однако в экономике Японии сейчас наблюдается дефляция – в марте потребительские цены оказались меньше, чем год назад; реальный ВВП снижается. Несмотря на близкую к нулю стоимость заимствований, дефицит бюджета достигает почти 7% ВВП, а госдолг страны превышает 230% ВВП. При этом численность населения и рабочей силы сокращается, а это значит, что в будущем долговые коэффициенты станут ещё выше.

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