Tokyo stock market Anadolu Agency/Getty Images

المأزق الاقتصادي في اليابان

كمبريدج ــ يتألف الاقتصاد الياباني من خليط متناقض من الازدهار والفشل. وإلى حد كبير، يساعد الازدهار في جعل معالجة الإخفاقات أمرا بالغ الصعوبة.

الواقع أن ثراء اليابان ملموس وواضح لكل من يزور طوكيو. فمستوى المعيشة مرتفع، حيث بلغ نصيب الفرد في الدخل الوطني عام 2015 (باعتبار تعادل القوة الشرائية) 38 ألف دولار أميركي، وهو مستوى قريب من المتوسط في فرنسا وبريطانيا (41 ألف دولار). ويُعَد معدل البطالة في اليابان (3.3%) أقل كثيرا من نظيره في الولايات المتحدة (5%) ومنطقة اليورو (10% تقريبا).

ولكن اقتصاد اليابان انزلق الآن إلى الانكماش، مع انخفاض أسعار المستهلك في مارس/آذار إلى مستويات أدنى مما كانت عليه قبل عام، في حين يتراجع الناتج المحلي الإجمالي الحقيقي. وبرغم اقتراب تكاليف الاقتراض من الصِفر، يكاد العجز المالي يبلغ 7% من الناتج المحلي الإجمالي، ويتجاوز الدين الحكومي 230% من الناتج المحلي الإجمالي، هذا فضلا عن تقلص السكان وقوة العمل، وهو ما يعني ارتفاع نسب الدين في المستقبل.

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