机器人崛起

伯克利—几十年来,人们一直在预测先进计算和机器人科技会如何影响我们的生活。一方面,有人警告说机器人会在经济中取代人类,摧毁人们特别是低技能工人的生活。也有人看到了机器人所带来的巨大经济机会,比如,他们说机器人能改进生产率、承担无人愿干的工作。风险资本家彼得·提尔(Peter Thiel)最近也加入了战团,他属于后一个阵营,认为机器人能让我们的未来避免高物价和低工资。

要指出哪一方是正确的,首先要理解历史上人类创造价值的六种方法:通过我们的腿、我们的手指、我们的嘴、我们的大脑、我们的笑容和我们的精神。我们的腿和其他大肌群将东西移到我们想让它们存在的地方,以便我们的手指将它们重新整理成有用的模式。我们的大脑管理常规活动,让腿和手指保持协调。我们的嘴——事实上,使我们的语言,不论是口头的还是书面的——让我们能够互相传递信息和娱乐。我们的笑容让我们彼此保持联系,确保可以心往一处使。最后,我们的精神——我们的好奇心和创造力——认识和解决重要而有趣的挑战。

提尔反驳了机器人末日论者常常持有的观点——人工智能和先进机器人对劳动力的影响将复制全球化对发达国家工人影响。全球化伤害了美国等地的低技能工人,因为它让遥远他国的群众也得以参与全球劳动分工中的腿和手指竞争。这些新竞争者要求的工资更低,因此许多公司的选择是不言而喻的。

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