A Grande Depressão

BERKELEY – Primeiro, foi a crise financeira de 2007. Depois, tornou-se na crise financeira de 2008. Em seguida, foi o declínio de 2008-2009. Finalmente, em meados de 2009, foi apelidada de a “Grande Recessão”. E, com a deslocação do ciclo empresarial para uma trajectória ascendente no final de 2009, o mundo soltou um suspiro de alívio colectivo. Acreditava-se que não teríamos de passar para o próximo rótulo, que iria inevitavelmente conter a temida palavra que começa pela letra D.

Mas a sensação de alívio foi prematura. Ao contrário das afirmações dos políticos e dos seus assessores principais de que o “Verão da recuperação” tinha chegado, os Estados Unidos da América não sentiram um padrão em forma de V da recuperação económica, como sentiram após as recessões do final da década de 1970 e do início da década de 1980. E a economia dos EUA permaneceu muito abaixo da sua tendência de crescimento anterior.

Na verdade, de 2005 a 2007, o PIB real (ajustado pela inflação) da América cresceu pouco mais de 3% ao ano. Durante a baixa de 2009, o número era 11% inferior - e, desde então, caiu cerca de uns adicionais 5%.

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