意大利重拾瘫痪政治

十多年来,意大利一直为两极政治制度所统治。选民可在左翼联盟与右翼联盟之间进行选择。那些对现任政府不满的人可投票支持反对党。并且这种替代选择的存在对政客们具有约束作用:西尔维奥·贝卢斯科尼政府能够度过其整个选举任期绝非偶然。

这与意大利的政治传统形成鲜明的对比。在整个战后时期,直到二十世纪九十年代初,意大利历届政府平均任期不到一年。选民们无法在现任政府与反对党之间进行选择,因为一直都是同样的中间派执政。政府危机仅仅是改组重要内阁职位或改变总理政党派系的一个机会。

然而,现在存在极大的风险,意大利政治家们要重拾其传统惯例。想到竞选运动期间罗马诺·普罗迪与西尔维奥·贝卢斯科尼之间的敌对态度,这种现象似乎有些奇怪。但是,那种敌对态度反映了贝卢斯科尼所实现的政治个人化,以及他废除的体制特征。他执政期间的最后一项行动是用按比例统治替代了1993年引进的多数主义选举制度。这种新的选举制度改变了政客们的激励机制,并且可能导致重新回到联盟之间轮换和政府不稳定状态。如果贝卢斯科尼本人在接下来的选举期内远离政治(这是有可能的),这一后果将会更加严重。

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