Renzi speaks after Referendum loss Franco Origlia/Stringer

¿Salvará Trump al euro?

BRUSELAS – Europa acaba de atravesar otras dos difíciles pruebas. Los votantes austríacos rechazaron la posibilidad de que la Unión Europea tuviera su primer jefe de Estado ultraderechista, pero los italianos propinaron un rotundo no a su gobierno y abrieron el camino para la llegada al poder de fuerzas populistas. Si a eso le sumamos el Brexit, todavía por concretarse, y el aún deslucido desempeño económico de la eurozona, la supervivencia de la moneda común dista de estar garantizada.

La percepción de que el euro es culpable de los muchos padecimientos económicos de Europa (desde una recesión con recaída hasta una recuperación lenta y despareja) dio sustento al ascenso de movimientos políticos nacionalistas, euroescépticos y populistas. Austria consiguió frenar su avance, pero tal vez Italia no pueda.

La decisión del primer ministro Matteo Renzi de cumplir su promesa de renunciar si los votantes rechazaban las reformas constitucionales propuestas por su gobierno sumió la política italiana en el desconcierto; es probable que se llame a elección general anticipada. En un momento de importantes desafíos económicos (la producción italiana lleva estancada una década y el estado de sus finanzas públicas todavía es precario), el Movimiento Cinco Estrellas, una agrupación populista que prometió celebrar un referendo sobre la permanencia en la zona euro, tiene potencial de atraer votantes.

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