逃离自由

伦敦—在伊斯兰国崛起的过程中,最令人心寒的也许是如此之多的西方国家公民加入其中,沦为人肉炸弹和断头人质。为何数以百计的穆斯林——其中许多人受过教育、来自中产阶级家庭——离开舒适的西方民主国家加入这个残忍的野蛮运动?什么导致年轻男女容易受到极端主义伊斯兰信息的影响?

西格蒙德·弗洛伊德(Sigmund Freud)目睹了20世纪30年代纳粹的崛起,他描述了极权领袖的危险号召以及他们的追随者在将个性拱手交给一种意识形态或组织时所体验到的令人满足的自我强化。对这些党羽来说,自由是一个造成心理负担的环境。弗洛伊德的门徒之一、埃里克·弗洛姆(Erich Fromm)指出,急切地想逃离自由选择的要求——通过接受僵化的信仰或一致的规范——对于那些强大的自主身份或为自己着想的能力尚未充分发展出来的人来说特别迫切。

西方圣战者所叛逃离开的当代民主国家提供了前所未有的自由程度。很难想象那种形式的政治社会要求如此之少的成员忠诚、施加如此之少的共同规范、实施如此之少的行为准则。在生活中的几乎每一个方面——道德、礼节、性行为、家庭结构、职业和宗教信仰——我们西方人都拥有随心所欲的自由。

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