逃离自由

伦敦—在伊斯兰国崛起的过程中,最令人心寒的也许是如此之多的西方国家公民加入其中,沦为人肉炸弹和断头人质。为何数以百计的穆斯林——其中许多人受过教育、来自中产阶级家庭——离开舒适的西方民主国家加入这个残忍的野蛮运动?什么导致年轻男女容易受到极端主义伊斯兰信息的影响?

西格蒙德·弗洛伊德(Sigmund Freud)目睹了20世纪30年代纳粹的崛起,他描述了极权领袖的危险号召以及他们的追随者在将个性拱手交给一种意识形态或组织时所体验到的令人满足的自我强化。对这些党羽来说,自由是一个造成心理负担的环境。弗洛伊德的门徒之一、埃里克·弗洛姆(Erich Fromm)指出,急切地想逃离自由选择的要求——通过接受僵化的信仰或一致的规范——对于那些强大的自主身份或为自己着想的能力尚未充分发展出来的人来说特别迫切。

西方圣战者所叛逃离开的当代民主国家提供了前所未有的自由程度。很难想象那种形式的政治社会要求如此之少的成员忠诚、施加如此之少的共同规范、实施如此之少的行为准则。在生活中的几乎每一个方面——道德、礼节、性行为、家庭结构、职业和宗教信仰——我们西方人都拥有随心所欲的自由。

To continue reading, please log in or enter your email address.

Registration is quick and easy and requires only your email address. If you already have an account with us, please log in. Or subscribe now for unlimited access.

required

Log in

http://prosyn.org/RwPdADe/zh;
  1. Chris J Ratcliffe/Getty Images

    The Brexit Surrender

    European Union leaders meeting in Brussels have given the go-ahead to talks with Britain on post-Brexit trade relations. But, as European Council President Donald Tusk has said, the most difficult challenge – forging a workable deal that secures broad political support on both sides – still lies ahead.

  2. The Great US Tax Debate

    ROBERT J. BARRO vs. JASON FURMAN & LAWRENCE H. SUMMERS on the impact of the GOP tax  overhaul.


    • Congressional Republicans are finalizing a tax-reform package that will reshape the business environment by lowering the corporate-tax rate and overhauling deductions. 

    • But will the plan's far-reaching changes provide the boost to investment and growth that its backers promise?


    ROBERT J. BARRO | How US Corporate Tax Reform Will Boost Growth

    JASON FURMAN & LAWRENCE H. SUMMERS | Robert Barro's Tax Reform Advocacy: A Response

  3. Murdoch's Last Stand?

    Rupert Murdoch’s sale of 21st Century Fox’s entertainment assets to Disney for $66 billion may mark the end of the media mogul’s career, which will long be remembered for its corrosive effect on democratic discourse on both sides of the Atlantic. 

    From enabling the rise of Donald Trump to hacking the telephone of a murdered British schoolgirl, Murdoch’s media empire has staked its success on stoking populist rage.

  4. Bank of England Leon Neal/Getty Images

    The Dangerous Delusion of Price Stability

    Since the hyperinflation of the 1970s, which central banks were right to combat by whatever means necessary, maintaining positive but low inflation has become a monetary-policy obsession. But, because the world economy has changed dramatically since then, central bankers have started to miss the monetary-policy forest for the trees.

  5. Harvard’s Jeffrey Frankel Measures the GOP’s Tax Plan

    Jeffrey Frankel, a professor at Harvard University’s Kennedy School of Government and a former member of President Bill Clinton’s Council of Economic Advisers, outlines the five criteria he uses to judge the efficacy of tax reform efforts. And in his view, the US Republicans’ most recent offering fails miserably.

  6. A box containing viles of human embryonic Stem Cell cultures Sandy Huffaker/Getty Images

    The Holy Grail of Genetic Engineering

    CRISPR-Cas – a gene-editing technique that is far more precise and efficient than any that has come before it – is poised to change the world. But ensuring that those changes are positive – helping to fight tumors and mosquito-borne illnesses, for example – will require scientists to apply the utmost caution.

  7. The Year Ahead 2018

    The world’s leading thinkers and policymakers examine what’s come apart in the past year, and anticipate what will define the year ahead.

    Order now