伊斯兰的改革主义传统

在许多人的臆测中,西方与穆斯林世界之间的"文明的冲突"正通过伊拉克和沙特阿拉伯日渐增长的暴力事件表现出来。事实上这些表象掩饰了其它的冲突-一些可能具有更深远意义的争端。其中之一就是发生在穆斯林之中的关于其社会内部变革形式的斗争。

穆斯林的改革主义传统-对于将伊斯兰的传统与现代社会联系起来的真正路径的探索-源远流长。其渊源可以追溯到19世纪中叶。在那时,穆斯林的思想家们将他们自己社会的衰落与欧洲的活力进行对比。欧洲成功地将穆斯林世界的很大部分殖民化的事实使得这种差别尤为痛苦。那时的穆斯林知识分子还关注着穆斯林社会的"堕落"及导致这种堕落的政治和社会的腐败。

许多早期的穆斯林改革主义者是神职人员和高级官僚,他们亲眼目睹了其社会的衰败。更重要的是他们是那些受到过书面的伊斯兰文化遗产教益的极少数人中的一部分。他们的志向远不止于死记硬背《古兰经》,而是渴望参与数世纪以来在穆斯林学者当中进行的关于穆斯林生活的适当秩序的讨论。这种训练使他们能够将他们那个时代的恶劣现实与先辈教士和思想家们的祈望进行对比。

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