現代化に有効な手段としてのイスラム教

イラクおよび広域中東における最大の懸念の 1 つは、イスラム教と現代化が対立する点である。しかし過去 30 年間のマレーシアの歴史は、この考えが誤っていることを示している。事実、イスラム化は、マレー人の大部分を国の急速な経済発展に調和させる、有効な政治的手段であることが証明されている。

1970 年代前半、マレーシアが全体的に農業国であり、イスラム化が勢いを増し始めたばかりの頃、マレーシアは国民の大多数を占めるマレー人により大きな福利厚生を分け与えることを目的とする、いわゆる「新経済政策 (NEP: New Economic Policy)」を打ち立てた。劇的な経済成長の 30 年間を経て、多くのマレー人が裕福になり、非宗教的な資本主義のみならず、国が提示する現代化を (概ね) 擁護する新しいイスラム教のアイデンティティについても満足するようになった。(もちろん、検閲の強化を要求しながらグローバル化が支持されるなどの矛盾はいつでも表面化している。)

アンワル イブラヒム (Anwar Ibrahim) などのイスラム教志向の政治家は、1970 年代にイスラム化が進み始めた頃に活躍した。しかし彼らが推進したイスラム教とは、決して後退的なものではなかった。むしろ、イスラム教徒の感性に注目した現代化経済政策を形成することを目指していたのである。

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