Tim Brinton

悲伤是疾病吗?

纽约 —— 悲伤是为所有社会及时代认可的少数几种人类情绪之一。某些最早期的史诗著作,比方说《伊利亚特》和《 吉尔伽美》,都描述了主人公在失去亲密同志后所产生的悲伤情绪。同样,来自众多社会形态的人类著作也明确描绘了因爱情受挫、被对手羞辱或未能实现有价值的文化目标所引发的悲伤情绪。

就连灵长类动物在遭受损失后也明显会产生出与人类悲伤类似的行为和心理。有一点几乎没有疑问,那就是生物进化促使人类更有可能在上述情况下产生悲伤情绪。

自从有文字记载以来,就有了对抑郁心理疾病的描述。希波克拉底在公元前五世纪提出了有史以来第一个精神忧郁症(也就是我们现在所说的“抑郁”)的概念,希波克拉底认为这是一种独特的疾病:“如果恐惧和悲伤情绪持续时间很长,就构成了忧郁症。”希波克拉底与忧郁症联系在一起的症状包括 —— “不思饮食、意志消沉、失眠、易怒、烦躁” —— 无不与现代抑郁症的定义有着惊人的相似。

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