Tim Brinton

悲伤是疾病吗?

纽约 —— 悲伤是为所有社会及时代认可的少数几种人类情绪之一。某些最早期的史诗著作,比方说《伊利亚特》和《 吉尔伽美》,都描述了主人公在失去亲密同志后所产生的悲伤情绪。同样,来自众多社会形态的人类著作也明确描绘了因爱情受挫、被对手羞辱或未能实现有价值的文化目标所引发的悲伤情绪。

就连灵长类动物在遭受损失后也明显会产生出与人类悲伤类似的行为和心理。有一点几乎没有疑问,那就是生物进化促使人类更有可能在上述情况下产生悲伤情绪。

自从有文字记载以来,就有了对抑郁心理疾病的描述。希波克拉底在公元前五世纪提出了有史以来第一个精神忧郁症(也就是我们现在所说的“抑郁”)的概念,希波克拉底认为这是一种独特的疾病:“如果恐惧和悲伤情绪持续时间很长,就构成了忧郁症。”希波克拉底与忧郁症联系在一起的症状包括 —— “不思饮食、意志消沉、失眠、易怒、烦躁” —— 无不与现代抑郁症的定义有着惊人的相似。

To continue reading, please log in or enter your email address.

Registration is quick and easy and requires only your email address. If you already have an account with us, please log in. Or subscribe now for unlimited access.

required

Log in

http://prosyn.org/lmmRvV5/zh;
  1. Patrick Kovarik/Getty Images

    The Summit of Climate Hopes

    Presidents, prime ministers, and policymakers gather in Paris today for the One Planet Summit. But with no senior US representative attending, is the 2015 Paris climate agreement still viable?

  2. Trump greets his supporters The Washington Post/Getty Images

    Populist Plutocracy and the Future of America

    • In the first year of his presidency, Donald Trump has consistently sold out the blue-collar, socially conservative whites who brought him to power, while pursuing policies to enrich his fellow plutocrats. 

    • Sooner or later, Trump's core supporters will wake up to this fact, so it is worth asking how far he might go to keep them on his side.
  3. Agents are bidding on at the auction of Leonardo da Vinci's 'Salvator Mundi' Eduardo Munoz Alvarez/Getty Images

    The Man Who Didn’t Save the World

    A Saudi prince has been revealed to be the buyer of Leonardo da Vinci's "Salvator Mundi," for which he spent $450.3 million. Had he given the money to the poor, as the subject of the painting instructed another rich man, he could have restored eyesight to nine million people, or enabled 13 million families to grow 50% more food.

  4.  An inside view of the 'AknRobotics' Anadolu Agency/Getty Images

    Two Myths About Automation

    While many people believe that technological progress and job destruction are accelerating dramatically, there is no evidence of either trend. In reality, total factor productivity, the best summary measure of the pace of technical change, has been stagnating since 2005 in the US and across the advanced-country world.

  5. A student shows a combo pictures of three dictators, Austrian born Hitler, Castro and Stalin with Viktor Orban Attila Kisbenedek/Getty Images

    The Hungarian Government’s Failed Campaign of Lies

    The Hungarian government has released the results of its "national consultation" on what it calls the "Soros Plan" to flood the country with Muslim migrants and refugees. But no such plan exists, only a taxpayer-funded propaganda campaign to help a corrupt administration deflect attention from its failure to fulfill Hungarians’ aspirations.

  6. Project Syndicate

    DEBATE: Should the Eurozone Impose Fiscal Union?

    French President Emmanuel Macron wants European leaders to appoint a eurozone finance minister as a way to ensure the single currency's long-term viability. But would it work, and, more fundamentally, is it necessary?

  7. The Year Ahead 2018

    The world’s leading thinkers and policymakers examine what’s come apart in the past year, and anticipate what will define the year ahead.

    Order now