¿Es la OTAN la gran víctima de la guerra contra el terrorismo?

Al terminar las guerras, comienzan las autopsias diplomáticas y políticas. Todavía es muy pronto para sacar conclusiones firmes sobre la ''guerra contra el terrorismo'' en Afganistán. Sin embargo, sí se pueden sacar algunas conclusiones preliminares. Una de ellas tiene que ver con los cambios casi revolucionarios que se están contemplando en las relaciones de la OTAN con Rusia. Otra menos visible es la herida profunda y autoinfligida que, en mi opinión, se ha abierto en la OTAN misma.

Desde el principio de la crisis, el 11 de septiembre, los miembros europeos de la OTAN (así como otros países, por supuesto) se alinearon rápidamente con los Estados Unidos con solidaridad moral y política, y con ofrecimientos de cooperación. Por primera vez desde la fundación de la OTAN, se invocó el Artículo 5 del Tratado de Washington.

El Tratado de Washington se firmó hace medio siglo para hacer frente a la amenaza soviética en los inicios de la Guerra Fría. El Artículo 5 es la piedra angular del tratado, porque estipula que un ataque en contra de algún miembro de la alianza se considerará como un ataque en contra de todos. Este artículo distingue a la OTAN de casi cualquier otra alianza defensiva en la historia de la humanidad en el sentido de que incorpora una garantía sin límites de defensa colectiva. Hasta el 11 de septiembre, nunca se había activado.

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