Les Etats-Unis sont-ils sur le point de succomber au mal britannique ?

BERKELEY – Aux Etats-Unis, le sentiment d’un déclin du pays s’est emparé des esprits. Des visées impérialistes démesurées, une polarisation politique et une crise financière coûteuse ont plombé l’économie. Certains observateurs s’inquiètent aujourd’hui du fait que les Etats-Unis s’apprêtent à leur tour à succomber au mal anglais.

Condamnés à une croissance faible, les Etats-Unis, comme la Grande-Bretagne exsangue au sortir de la Seconde guerre mondiale, seront obligés de réduire leurs engagements internationaux. Ce retrait ouvrira des espaces pour les puissances émergentes, comme la Chine, mais donnera aussi lieu à une plus grande incertitude géopolitique mondiale.

Dans cette perspective, il est important de comprendre la nature du mal britannique. D’une part, les États-Unis et l’Allemagne ont cru plus rapidement que la Grande-Bretagne après 1870. Mais ce n’est pas la seule raison : il est parfaitement normal que les pays ayant un développement plus tardif croissent plus rapidement, comme c’est le cas pour la Chine aujourd’hui. Le problème tient au fait que l’empire britannique de la fin du XIXe siècle n’a pas su adapter son économie aux nouvelles technologies.

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