Hassan Rouhani, President of Iran. Dirk Waem/Belga via ZUMA Press

Arabia Saudí y los intentos de Irán por tomar el poder en Siria

RIYADH – Convidar a Irán a ser parte de la próxima ronda de conversaciones sobre la crisis en Siria que se realizará en Viena, Austria (invitación que se reiteró la semana pasada) tiene consecuencias de largo alcance. De hecho, el actual gobierno iraní está intentando acabar con un equilibrio de poder que ha durado cerca de 1.400 años. Como cuna del mundo musulmán, Arabia Saudí no lo permitirá.

La brecha entre Irán y Arabia Saudí, respectivamente las potencias más prominentes del islamismo chií y suní de Oriente Próximo, tiene profundas raíces. Para comprender más allá de Siria lo que está pasando realmente hoy en la región, tenemos que considerar los orígenes del cisma entre ambas corrientes, la brecha entre los mundos árabe y persa y las luchas del pasado sobre el modo de gobernar el Islam.

El Islam se dividió entre suníes y chiíes después de que muriera el profeta Mahoma y se tuviese que escoger un sucesor. La mayoría de sus seguidores, que acabaron por conocerse como musulmanes chiíes, sintieron que los creyentes debían basar su decisión en la capacidad personal, por lo que apoyaron a Abu Bakr, suegro del profeta y opción escogida por los musulmanes más ilustres. Sin embargo, un pequeño grupo de disidentes, que con el tiempo se conocieron como musulmanes chiíes, manifestaron que el nuevo califa debía tener parentesco de sangre con Mahoma, por lo que decidieron que debía sucederle su cuñado y primo Ali ibn Abi Talib (el cuarto califa según los suníes). Hoy en día un 90% de los musulmanes son suníes y un 10% son chiíes.

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