Hassan Rouhani, President of Iran. Dirk Waem/Belga via ZUMA Press

Saudi-Arabien und Irans Griff nach der Macht in Syrien

RIAD – Die Teilnahme des Iran an der nächsten Gesprächsrunde über die Syrien-Krise in Wien – eine Einladung, die vergangene Woche wiederholt wurde – hat weitreichende Folgen. In Wirklichkeit versucht die amtierende Regierung des Iran, ein Kräftegleichgewicht zu kippen, das seit ungefähr 1.400 Jahren Bestand hat – und das wird Saudi-Arabien, als Wiege der islamischen Welt, nicht zulassen.

Die Kluft zwischen Iran und Saudi-Arabien, den bedeutendsten schiitischen beziehungsweise sunnitischen Kräften im Nahen Osten, ist tief verwurzelt. Um verstehen zu können, was heutzutage im Nahen Osten – nicht nur in Syrien – wirklich vor sich geht, muss man die Ursprünge des sunnitisch-schiitischen Schisma, die Trennlinien zwischen Arabern und Persern und vergangene Konflikte über die Führung der islamischen Gläubigen betrachten.

Es kam zur Spaltung des Islam in Sunniten und Schiiten, als nach dem Tod des Propheten Mohammed, ein Nachfolger gewählt werden musste. Die meisten Anhänger Mohammeds, die als sunnitische Muslime bekannt wurden, sprachen sich dafür aus, die Entscheidung der Gläubigen über die Nachfolge auf Kompetenz beruhen zu lassen und unterstützten die Wahl der Ältesten, die auf Mohammeds Schwiegervater, Abu Bakr, gefallen war. Doch eine kleine Minderheit, die später als schiitische Muslime bekannt wurden, hielt daran fest, dass der neue Kalif ein Blutsverwandter des Propheten sein müsse und befand, dass Mohammeds Schwiegersohn und Vetter Ali ibn Abi Talib (der den Sunniten als vierter Kalif gilt) sein rechtmäßiger Nachfolger ist. Heute sind 90% aller Muslime Sunniten und 10% sind Schiiten.

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