Iran Confronts Reality

Who benefited from the summit in Iran of the Non-Aligned Movement is not entirely clear. But the participants’ inability to reach a common position on their hosts’ nuclear program or the violence in Syria undermined Iran’s effort to demonstrate that it remains an effective international player.

MADRID – Who has not seen what looks like water on a highway on a hot summer’s day? Or a three-dimensional image that was actually a picture on a flat surface? The nature of illusion is that we mistake what we perceive for reality.

That is true whether an illusion is cognitive or political. Depending on how a particular event develops, it can lead us to formulate erroneous interpretations of what is actually happening.

Such perceptions are often mediated by ideas and previous experiences. And, as Robert Jervis argued in Perception and Misperception in International Politics, published during the Cold War, the illusions that we create have an enormous influence on decision-making – even becoming a fundamental cause of conflict.

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