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Una normativa internacional para el ciberespacio

CAMBRIDGE – El mes pasado, se celebró en Holanda la Conferencia Global 2015 sobre el Ciberespacio, con la presencia de casi dos mil funcionarios de gobiernos, académicos, representantes de la industria y otros participantes. Fui moderador de un panel sobre paz y seguridad en el ciberespacio, del que participaron un vicepresidente de Microsoft y las ministras de relaciones exteriores de dos países. Esta conferencia multisectorial es un paso más en una serie de esfuerzos tendientes a establecer una normativa que evite conflictos en el ciberespacio.

Ya está suficientemente probado que es posible causar daños a través de Internet. Muchos observadores creen que los gobiernos estadounidense e israelí estuvieron detrás del ataque que hace un tiempo destruyó varias centrifugadoras en una planta nuclear iraní. Hay quien dice que un ataque del gobierno iraní destruyó miles de computadoras de la empresa saudita Aramco. A Rusia se la acusa de haber orquestado ataques de denegación de servicio contra Estonia y Georgia. Y en diciembre pasado, el presidente de los Estados Unidos, Barack Obama, atribuyó un ataque contra Sony Pictures al gobierno norcoreano.

Hasta hace poco, la ciberseguridad era un ámbito reservado a una pequeña comunidad de expertos en informática. Cuando se creó Internet, en los años setenta, sus miembros formaban una aldea virtual, en la que todos se conocían; por eso diseñaron un sistema abierto, con poca atención a la seguridad.

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