¿Oferta, demanda o innovación?

NUEVA YORK – Se ha vuelto imposible hacer la vista gorda al llamado “estancamiento secular” que afecta a las economías más avanzadas del mundo: la riqueza se acumula, pero los salarios reales apenas suben y la participación en la fuerza laboral ha ido descendiendo progresivamente. Peor aún, los encargados de formular las políticas no tienen ideas claras de qué hacer al respecto.

Una de las razones de este estancamiento es el descenso del aumento de productividad desde 1970. La innovación local, su motor, ha sufrido muchas obstrucciones desde fines de los años 60 (principalmente en los países desarrollados), y más aún desde 2005.

El ángulo con que Ronald Reagan y Margaret Thatcher vieron este estancamiento, que afectaba a las economías desde los años 70, era el de la oferta. Así, impulsaron menores impuestos a las utilidades y los salarios como manera de fomentar la inversión y el desarrollo, con resultados debatibles.

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