L’islam démocratique d’Indonésie

NEW YORK – La visite à Jakarta de BarryObama, surnom indonésien de l’ancien résident et actuel président américain a surtout pour but de célébrer le succès du plus important pays à majorité musulmane au monde. Depuis sa transition démocratique il y a 12 ans, l’Indonésie a régulièrement organisé des élections locales et nationales, développé une économie de marché qui fonctionne et renforcé sa culture de tolérance vis à vis des minorités chrétiennes, hindoues, bouddhistes et chinoises du pays.

Des dix membres de l’Association des Nations de l’Asie du Sud-Est, seule l’Indonésie a obtenu une notation « libre » de la part de Freedom House. Les très catholiques Philippines, la Thaïlande bouddhiste et le confucianiste Singapour  sont tous derrière l’Indonésie pour ce qui est de garantir les droits démocratiques fondamentaux à leurs peuples. Les hommes politiques américains se sont donc intéressés à l’Indonésie comme un modèle pour le reste du monde musulman. Mais quelles leçons peut-on tirer de la démocratie indonésienne ?

Ce qu’il faut surtout retenir est que les organisations islamiques peuvent contribuer l’ossature d’une société civile tolérante. Muhammadiyah et Nahdlatul Ulama (NU), deux institutions islamiques majeures regroupant respectivement plus de 30 millions et 40 millions de membres, gèrent plus de 10 000 écoles et des centaines d’hôpitaux, animent des organisations pour la jeunesse et soutiennent des mouvements de femmes. Ces deux organisations ont des liens avec les partis politiques dont la plupart se sont régulièrement exprimés en faveur de la démocratie et contre un état islamique.

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