Bartosz Hadyniak/Getty Images

Per l’India è il momento di volare più in alto

WASHINGTON, DC – Immaginate di essere un genitore con molti figli e poche risorse a disposizione. Il figlio maggiore è abbastanza maturo per andare via di casa ma non vuole farlo, e nel restare consuma risorse di cui i fratelli avrebbero un disperato bisogno. È giusto permettere che gli altri figli soffrano perché il più grande non vuole rendersi indipendente?

Una dinamica simile si è instaurata tra la Banca mondiale e i destinatari del programma dell’Associazione internazionale per lo sviluppo, istituto che fa capo alla Banca. L’Associazione sostiene una crescita equa nei paesi poveri erogando prestiti a basso tasso d’interesse e a lungo termine, e finanziamenti ai governi nazionali. Il programma assiste 77 tra i più paesi poveri del mondo, metà dei quali si trova in Africa. Esso, inoltre, fornisce supporto a un paese che non avrebbe più diritto di riceverlo, cioè l’India.

Alla fine dell’anno fiscale 2014, l’India si è ufficialmente affrancata dagli aiuti forniti dal programma dell’Associazione poiché non ha più i requisiti di povertà richiesti. La Banca mondiale stabilisce una soglia per l’assistenza, che si basa sul reddito nazionale lordo pro capite (RNL). Per l’anno fiscale 2016 tale soglia è di 1.215 dollari pro capite. Dal 2010 l’RNL pro capite dell’India ha superato ogni anno il limite fissato dalla Banca mondiale, e nel 2014 ammontava a 1.570 dollari.

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