الهند وطاقاتها المتجددة

نيودلهي ــ إن الاقتصاد الهندي في طريقه إلى العودة من جديد. فبعد سنوات عديدة من الأداء المحبط، تعكف السلطات الآن على تحويل السياسات الرامية إلى تعزيز معدل النمو السنوي ليصبح أقرب إلى مستوى الـ9% الذي حققته الهند منذ عام 2004 إلى عام 2008.

ولن يكون هذا سهلا. فالهند تواجه العديد من المعوقات وتفتقر إلى العديد من الأمور اللازمة لتعزيز النمو السريع.

ورغم أن الهند لديها جامعات ومعاهد تكنولوجية ممتازة، فإن نظام التعليم الأساسي رديء إلى حد مأساوي. والنظام الطبقي وقوانين العمل هناك تمنع نشوء سوق عمل تتسم بالكفاءة. وتؤثر سياسة الحصص للطبقات الأدنى ولأفراد قبائل "مجدولة" معينة على المؤسسات التعليمية، والتوظيف الحكومي، بل وحتى الشركات الخاصة. وتعمل السياسات الشعبوية التي تحول أموالاً شحيحة من الميزانية إلى مئات الملايين من الرجال والنساء القرويين على تشجيعهم على سحب خدماتهم العمالية، كما تدفع الأجور إلى الارتفاع، وتقوض القدرة التنافسية الدولية.

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