La révolution de l’Inde illettrée

Les États-Unis sont divisés depuis longtemps sur ce qu’ils appellent “l’affirmative action” [la discrimination positive], un système de préférence raciale visant à mettre fin aux conséquences encore présentes de l’esclavage et de la discrimination contre les noirs. L’Inde est aujourd’hui en train de se diviser autour du même sujet, et pour à peu près la même raison : le système émergent de “places réservées” destiné à corriger des siècles de discrimination entre les castes. Mais les bonnes intentions de l’Inde, tout comme les politiques américaines de discrimination positive, font fausse route.

Il s’agit de savoir si le système qui prend le mérite comme critère de progression est condamné lorsqu’il existe un héritage de castes et de discrimination raciale. Ceux qui se démènent pour promouvoir la discrimination positive se battent-il plus pour un remède de charlatan que pour une vraie solution ?

En fait, le système indien de “places réservées” fonctionne comme un écran de fumée mis en place délibérément, car il permet au gouvernement de masquer astucieusement le vrai problème, celui de l’accès à l’éducation primaire pour les défavorisés de l’Inde. Si une éducation primaire appropriée était accessible aux pauvres indiens (ou d’ailleurs aux pauvres noirs des villes américaines), les places réservées dans l’éducation supérieure ou ailleurs ne seraient pas nécessaires.

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