leaking water Kevin O'Mara/Flickr

Stopper la fuite des capitaux hors d’Afrique

DAKAR – Beaucoup considèrent l’Afrique comme un bénéficiaire net du système financier mondial, comme un continent vers lequel aides et investissements afflueraient abondamment en provenance de plus riches régions du monde. Ce n’est tout simplement pas vrai. L’Afrique est en réalité asséchée par une fuite illicite de capitaux – qui aurait coûté au continent près de mille milliards de dollars sur les 50 dernières années, selon un groupe d’experts de haut niveau dirigé par l’ancien président sud-africain Thabo Mbeki. Ainsi, les sommes d’argent effusent en réalité hors d’Afrique dans une plus grande mesure qu’elles y pénètrent.

Et cette effusion ne va qu’en s’aggravant. D’après Global Financial Integrity, groupe d’expertise-conseil et de recherche basé à Washington DC, les fuites illicites de capitaux hors de la Communauté économique des États d’Afrique de l’Ouest (CEDEAO) auraient augmenté chaque année de 23 % au cours de la première décennie de ce siècle, pour un total de 11 milliards $ en 2011. GFI estime que si rien n’est fait pour changer les choses, la région perdra chaque année 14 milliards $ d’ici 2018. Si l’Afrique entend pouvoir financer ses priorités de développement, et répondre aux Objectifs de développement durable, elle ne pourra rester passive face à cette situation.

Les canaux de fuite sont en effet très nombreux. Le caractère abusif des prix de transfert – via lesquels des entités juridiquement reliées procèdent à une manipulation du tarif des biens et services – représente environ 60 % des fuites illicites de capitaux hors du continent, selon la Commission économique des Nations Unies pour l’Afrique. Un récent rapport, publié par Dalberg Global Development Advisors et l’Open Society Initiative for West Africa, estime que sur la période 2012 à 2018, les gouvernements de la CEDEAO auraient pu collecter pas moins de 56 milliards $ de recettes fiscales, s’ils avaient mis en place des systèmes de prix de transfert efficaces.

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