Comment aider la Birmanie

RANGOON – Dans tout le Moyen-Orient, et maintenant en Birmanie (Myanmar), l’une des grandes questions de la politique contemporaine mondiale a refait surface : comment les pays peuvent-ils passer d’un autoritarisme défaillant à une forme ou une autre de pluralisme indépendant ? Les ministres des Affaires étrangères sont à leur tour confrontés à des questions difficiles : lorsque des pays entament une telle transition politique, à quel moment faut-il leur venir en aide et quelle est la meilleure manière de le faire ?

Les transitions réussies, pour paraphraser Tolstoï, se ressemblent toutes ; mais les transitions ratées sont chacune ratées à leur façon. Les transitions réussies dans la plupart des pays d’Europe centrale à la fin de la Guerre froide ont été facilitées par le fait que l’ancien ordre communiste s’est plus ou moins effondré de lui-même et a cédé le pouvoir sans opposer de résistance. Cette conjoncture, couplée à une aide généreuse de l’Europe occidentale, des Etats-Unis et d’autres pays, a contribué à créer une atmosphère propice à la réconciliation, permettant à chaque pays d’appréhender graduellement, sans esprit de vengeance, les nombreuses et difficiles questions morales découlant de leur récent et sombre passé.

Et surtout, ces transitions ont pris place dans le cadre d’un réseau plus large d’institutions légitimes – l’Union européenne, l’OSCE, l’Otan et le Conseil de l’Europe – qui défendent toutes l’État de droit. Ce contexte coopératif a fourni une feuille de route aux législateurs qui ont ainsi pu établir des institutions démocratiques et marginaliser les extrémismes.

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