Cómo Hacer Para, Sin Querer, Evitar la Creación de Negocios

CAMBRIDGE: Es bastante común que el resultado de los debates acerca de la reforma del lado de la oferta sea sólo una variedad de eslogans: un sector laboral flexible, desregulación y más competencia. Sin embargo, aún cuando todo mundo está de acuerdo en lo que se debe hacer, por lo general no pasa gran cosa.

Imaginemos a un ministro de economía que en verdad quiere mejorar el renglón de la oferta de su país pero no tiene una idea clara de lo que debe hacer. Podemos encontrar una respuesta interesante a esto en el trabajo de un grupo de investigación de la Universidad de Harvard organizado por Andrei Shleifer, un distinguido economista cuyo trabajo se centra en la forma en que los gobiernos hacen que la vida en el sector económico resulte más difícil de lo que debería ser.

La investigación de Shleifer considera cuántos pasos formales es necesario tomar, en 75 países muestra, para establecer una nueva compañía (legalmente y sin sobornos), así como cuánto tiempo hace falta y cuál es el costo. Si el gobierno de un país hace que la creación formal de empresas sea más difícil, uno no debe sorprenderse al descubrir que el número de nuevos negocios sea reducido y que éstos se encuentren muy aislados entre sí. Y si no se crean compañías ¿de dónde surge el crecimieto y cómo se incrementa la cantidad de empleos?

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