De l’efficacité des ONG

Lorsque survient une catastrophe, les organisations non gouvernementales (ONG) sont parmi les premières sur place. Les Nations Unies estiment qu’il existe aujourd’hui plus de 37 000 ONG internationales, avec d’importants bailleurs de fonds qui comptent de plus en plus sur elles.

Il y a inévitablement des problèmes. Tant le génocide rwandais de 1994 que le tsunami de 2004 dans l’océan Indien ont donné lieu à de dramatiques concurrences entre ONG. Mais il y a aussi eu des réussites marquantes. Plus de 1 400 ONG travaillant dans 90 pays ont obtenu la ratification par 123 pays du traité interdisant les mines antipersonnel. Cependant, l’envergure de “l’industrie” de l’humanitaire d’urgence – à laquelle s’ajoutent les efforts à long terme des ONG pour le développement – soulève de sérieuses questions sur la manière d’évaluer leur efficacité.

La flexibilité permet aux ONG d’être innovantes là où des organismes comme l’ONU ne le peuvent souvent pas. Mais il existe peu de règlements internationaux définissant ce qu’une ONG se doit d’être et le manque de contrôle peut avoir des conséquences imprévisibles. Récemment au Tchad, l’ONG française L’Arche de Zoé a, par exemple, tenté de faire sortir des enfants du pays sans avoir l’autorisation ni de leurs parents, ni du gouvernement.

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