خروج بريطانيا، والصوت، والولاء

برينستون ــ كان ألبرت هيرشمان، الذي توفي في نهاية العام الماضي، اقتصادي عظيم يتمتع بموهبة إنتاج البصيرة من خلال التركيز على أحد عناصر السلوك الملحوظ كوسيلة لتحويل رؤيتنا لمجموعة كاملة من المشاكل المحددة. وكان من بين أعظم أفكاره وأبعدها مدى الإطار الذي وضعه لـ"الخروج، والصوت، والولاء".

فبعد صياغته لهذا الإطار بعد تجربة مع القطارات الرديئة في غرب أفريقيا، أدرك هيرشمان أن كفاءة أي نظام اجتماعي معقد قد تتدهور إذا سمح للناس بالرحيل (الخروج)؛ والحل الأفضل يتلخص في الاحتفاظ بالناس (الولاء)، وهو ما من شأنه أن يمنحهم الحوافز اللازمة للتعبير عن المطالب (الصوت) التي من شأنها أن تحسن من أداء النظام.

ومن السهل أن نرى كيف يمكن تطبيق هذه النظرية على العلاقات الشخصية. فالزواج ينهار إذا كان الطلاق (الخروج) أسهل مما ينبغي؛ ولكنه أيضاً قد يتحول إلى علاقة لا تُطاق إذا غاب تبادل المشاعر والمناقشة (الصوت). وقد يخفت الصوت أيضاً إذا نشأت احتمالات جديدة: فظهور شريك جديد محتمل يعني غياب الضغوط التي قد تدفع الأطراف إلى المناقشة وتحسين العلاقات في إطار الترتيب القائم.

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