Gesunde Menschen, gesunde Städte, gesunde Wirtschaft

OXFORDDie Kräfte, die im neunzehnten und zwanzigsten Jahrhundert das Wachstum der europäischen und nordamerikanischen Städte bewirkt haben, treiben heute die Urbanisierung in Brasilien, China, Indien, Mexiko, Russland und anderen Schwellenländern voran. Produktive Technologien, rasche Binnenmigration und hohe Nettoreproduktionsraten haben das Wachstum dieser Metropolen beschleunigt und verstärkt und viele Städte in atemberaubender Geschwindigkeit auf beispiellose Größe anwachsen lassen. Die 20 größten Städte der Welt sind, bis auf drei Ausnahmen, in Schwellenländern zu finden.

Vielen Prognosen zufolge werden die vier größten aufstrebenden Volkswirtschaften die G7 in ihrer Gesamtheit bis zum 2030 überholt haben, und bis zum Jahr 2050 werden die Schwellenländer von heute über die Hälfte der Weltwirtschaft und einen sogar noch größeren Teil der Weltbevölkerung repräsentieren. Diese Prognosen gehen allesamt davon aus, dass das Wirtschaftswachstum in Städten erzeugt wird.

Aber werden die Städte in Schwellenländern gesund genug sein, um rasches Wirtschaftswachstum vorantreiben zu können? Die Probleme, mit denen Gesundheitspolitiker und Mediziner in Lima, Kairo, Kalkutta und Jakarta befasst sind, spiegeln unterschiedliche Klimazonen, Regionen, Geschichten und Kulturen wider. Letztlich ist jede Stadt ein Sonderfall. Gewisse Gemeinsamkeiten sind dennoch vorhanden.

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