Как излечить "депрессирующий" мозг

Ученые и специалисты в области психического здоровья добились больших успехов в понимании и лечении "большой депрессии", включая обнаружение роли дисбаланса химических веществ в головном мозге, таких как серотонин и норадреналин. Но существует все больше доказательств того, что депрессия также связана со структурными изменениями в областях мозга, отвечающих за настроение, память и принятие решений.

Депрессия часто возникает вследствие пережитого стресса. Мозг интерпретирует наши переживания и решает, представляют ли они опасность, а затем контролирует наши поведенческие и физиологические реакции на них. Данные, полученные в результате экспериментов на животных, показывают, что вредные физиологические изменения являются следствием неспособности мозга и всего организма реагировать на повторяющиеся стрессы адаптивными структурно-функциональными модификациями. Три области головного мозга - гиппокамп, префронтальная часть коры головного мозга и мозжечковая миндалина - особенно подвержены патологическим изменениям в размере и функциях.

Эти области отвечают за интерпретацию стрессовых переживаний и определение соответствующей ответной реакции. В этот процесс вовлечены многие химические медиаторы, включая кортизол и адреналин, вырабатываемые надпочечными железами, другие гормоны и нейромедиаторы (такие как серотонин и норадреналин), а также ответные реакции автономной нервной и иммунной систем. Депрессия, таким образом, приводит к изменениям во всем организме, благодаря продолжительным химическим дисбалансам в системах, контролирующих работу сердца, иммунную систему и обмен веществ.

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