Hans-Werner Sinn, the Risks of transatlantic-trade partnership between Europe  and America, Trade Ship Dana Smillie/World Bank

مزالق التجارة الحرة

ميونيخ ــ إن شراكة التجارة والاستثمار عبر الأطلسي، وهي حالياً موضع مفاوضات مكثفة بين الاتحاد الأوروبي والولايات المتحدة، بدأت تُحدِث موجات كبرى. ولأن هذين الكيانين الاقتصاديين يشكلان معاً أكثر من 50% من الناتج المحلي الإجمالي العالمي وثلث تدفقات التجارة العالمية، فإن المخاطر بالغة الارتفاع. ولضمان استفادة المستهلكين على ضفتي الأطلسي من هذه الشراكة، فيتعين على أولئك القائمين على التفاوض عليها أن ينتبهوا إلى العديد من الفخاخ الكبرى ويتجنبوها ــ وبعض هذه الفخاخ أكثر وضوحاً من غيرها.

في الآونة الأخيرة، كانت اتفاقيات التجارة الثنائية تكتسب زخماً متزايدا. على سبيل المثال، أبرم الاتحاد الأوروبي وكندا مؤخراً اتفاقية الاقتصاد والتجارة الشاملة، والتي من المرجح أن تصبح الأساس لشراكة التجارة والاستثمار عبر الأطلسي.

وليس هذا بالأمر المستغرب، نظراً للفشل المتكرر للمحاولات الرامية إلى التوصل إلى اتفاق عالمي عبر منظمة التجارة العالمية. فقد باءت جولة الدوحة من محادثات منظمة التجارة العالمية بالفشل، ولم يسفر الاتفاق الذي تم التوصل إليه في بالي العام الماضي برغم الترويج له بوصفه نجاحا مؤكدا إلا عن ما يزيد قليلاً على التعجيل بتحصيل الرسوم الجمركية.

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